Learn more about our faculty research projects and interests by using the links below.
Dr. Chen’s research is focused on energy balance promotion, achievement motivation, curriculum and instruction in Physical Education. Dr. Chen is interested in examining how (dispositional and situational) motivation and deep learning of essential knowledge (e.g., fitness, energy-balance knowledge) facilitate students’ conceptual and behavioral changes. His two recent research projects employed innovative technology and PE curriculum to promote energy balance knowledge, behavior and motivation among middle school students. Graduate students with similar research interests are strongly encouraged to apply to our doctoral program in Pedagogical Kinesiology.
Tim Derrick, Ph.D. - associate professor, biomechanics
Impact biomechanics. The Biomechanics Laboratory has close ties with industry in the area of impacts:
- We have tested the cushioning properties of footwear for such organizations as Runners World Magazine, Consumer Reports, Fila, Air Walk, Remington, Speedo, Wilson and the US Military.
- We have tested impact attenuation in gymnastics mats, vault tables and pads for companies such as Hadar Manufacturing and American Athletics.
- Shock attenuation has also been assessed in wheelchairs and basketball rims.
- Current research in this area involves the effects that the geometry of the body during the impact has on the effective mass and the impact attenuation.
Osteogenic exercise. Older adults and astronauts during long duration spaceflight have decreased bone strength that can lead to fracture. Exercise has been shown to increase bone strength and could be used as a preventative measure if the boundaries of safe and effective use can be identified.
We are using biochemical blood markers that are associated with bone resorption and formation in an effort to identify optimal patterns of impacts. We are also collecting impacts from various sport and exercise activities so that we can eventually identify those activities that produce the greatest osteogenic effect. The pattern of impacts can also play a role in stress fractures in athletes and military recruits. These are serious injuries that result in significant health care costs, lost training time, and interference with job performance and competition.
Lower extremity foot function. Foot disorders are difficult to study in humans because the foot is complex and resistant to internal examination. We have built a machine that allows us to move the muscles and skeleton of a cadaver foot in a natural motion so that we can measure bone movements and strains. We are working on using this information to build an accurate model of the foot so that function and dysfunction can be studied.
Panteleimon ‘Paddy’ Ekkekakis, Ph.D. - associate professor, exercise psychology
I investigate the reasons behind what is presently considered the most serious public health challenge in industrialized countries, namely the problem of physical inactivity. In particular, my research examines the patterns of affective responses (such as pleasure versus displeasure) to exercise performed at different levels of intensity and the cognitive and physiological factors that influence these patterns. The rationale for this focus is based on the so-called hedonic theory of motivation, according to which people generally tend to do what makes them feel better and tend to avoid what makes them feel worse.
My research was the first to demonstrate a reliable dose-response relationship between the intensity of physical activity and affective responses. Specifically, along with my research collaborators and students, we have demonstrated that the pattern of affective responses varies systematically across three domains of exercise intensity:
- Below the ventilatory threshold (a shift in respiratory gas exchange, manifesting as a breakpoint in the relationship between oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide excretion), affective responses tend to be positive in most participants.
- Between the ventilatory threshold and the maximal lactate steady state (the highest intensity of exercise that permits a stabilization of blood lactate concentration over time), there is considerable interindividual variability in affective responses, with some individuals reporting positive and other reporting negative changes. Much of this variation can be attributed to personality dispositions and cognitive factors (such as self-efficacy for vigorous exercise).
- Finally, beyond the maximal lactate steady state and until the point of maximal oxygen uptake, affective responses tend to be almost uniformly negative and show a strong relationship with physiological factors (such as respiratory variables and blood lactate concentration).
My research publications span the areas of psychometrics, personality and individual differences, affective psychology, psychophysiology, health psychology, behavioral and preventive medicine, applied physiology, and exercise science. I have co-edited the volume Psychobiology of Physical Activity (Human Kinetics, 2006), the first of its kind in the international literature.
Warren Franke, Ph.D. - associate professor, exercise physiology
My research interests have primarily an applied, or clinical, orientation. They are focused on the cardiovascular system and center around:
- The relationship between emergency response personnel (law enforcement, firefighters) and cardiovascular disease risk
- Methods of reducing chronic disease risk in older adults
Past research on the former has been funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIOSH) and is currently focused on elucidating job-related mechanisms (for example, altered sleep habits, using virtual reality to assess acute stress responses associated with decision making processes) contributing to cardiovascular disease.
Recent efforts at reducing chronic disease risk in older adults have focused on assessing the utility of blood flow restricted exercise training on promoting angiogenesis in older adults as well as the utility of Wii-based games to promote physical activity.
To date, I’ve co-authored over 50 peer-reviewed research papers, over 80 abstract/professional presentations, and been PI or co-investigator on over $3.5 million in external funding.
Jason Gillette, Ph.D. - associate professor, biomechanics
My research areas include:
- Motor control
- Biomedical engineering
I am interested in posture and balance during activities of daily living for healthy young adults, young adults post-ACL injury, healthy older adults, and older adults with osteoarthritis. I utilize kinematic, kinetic, and EMG measurements to analyze human motion, along with musculoskeletal modeling to estimate internal loading on the structures of the human body.
Doug King, Ph.D. - professor, exercise physiology
My current research interests include studies on the metabolic adaptions of muscle to acute and chronic exercise. I have published more than 50 scientific articles relating to the following:
- Nutritional aspects of exercise
- Exercise in altered environmental conditions
- Biochemical adaptations of skeletal muscle to sprint and endurance exercise
- The use of exercise in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus
Marian Kohut, Ph.D. - associate professor, exercise physiology
My research is focused on factors that modulate the immune response to viral infection or vaccines. In particular, my laboratory is currently studying how aging impacts the immune response to influenza viral infection and influenza vaccine. We aim to understand:
- The impact of age on factors important in Type I interferon induction (TLR7 expression, signal transduction)
- How Type I interferon-induced modulation of dendritic cell or T cell function is altered by age.
Currently, we are seeking to identify the mechanism(s) by which moderate exercise improves resistance to influenza infection and minimizes inflammatory responses within the respiratory tract in aged populations (a five year project funded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease).
We have recently completed another NIH-funded study demonstrating that moderate aerobic exercise in older adults improves antibody response to influenza vaccine, minimizes the age-related decline of T-cell immunity, and reduces inflammatory factors (CRP, TNFα,IL-6, IL-18). This study found that the improvements associated with exercise appear to be independent of psychosocial factors such as depression and stress.
Other exercise-related studies in my laboratory focus on intense, prolonged exercise (typically performed by competitive athletes), and how this type of exercise may compromise immunity resulting in increased vulnerability to infection. Our additional ongoing work also funded by NIH is focused on studying how botanical products (Echinacea, St. John’s Wort, and Prunella) may improve the immune response to viral infection and/or limit inflammation.
My primary research interests focus on physical activity epidemiology, especially on the independent and combined effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on various health outcomes in adults. Over the past 4 years, I have been actively involved in >40 publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. These studies include the associations of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, dietary pattern, and alcohol consumption with various health outcomes, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, falling, depression, and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.
Selected Publications (IF, Impact Factor):
- Ortega FB, Lee DC, Katzmarzyk PT, Ruiz JR, Sui X, Church TS, Blair SN. The intriguing metabolically healthy but obese phenotype: cardiovascular prognosis and role of fitness. Eur Heart J. 2012, Sep. 4. (Epub ahead of print). (IF=10.5)
- Lee DC, Sui X, Jackson AS, Church TS, Lavie CJ, Blair SN. Changes in fitness and fatness on the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors focusing on hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(7):665-72. (IF=14.2)
- Lee DC, Park IH, Nam BH, Cho SI, Steven N. Blair, Kim YS. Physical activity and body mass index on the development of type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(1):43-51. (IF=5.2)
- Shook RP, Lee DC, Sui X, Prasad V, Hooker SP, Church TS, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the risk of incident hypertension associated with a parental history of hypertension. Hypertension. 2012;59(6):1220-4. (IF=6.2)
- Lee DC, Sui X, Artero EG, Lee IM, Church TS, McAuley PA, Standford FC, Kohl HW, Blair SN. Long-term effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on all-cause and CVD mortality in men: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Circulation. 2011;124(23):2483-90. (IF=14.7)
- Lee DC, Sui X, Ortega FB, Kim YS, Church TS, Winett RA, Ekelund U, Katzmarzyk PT, Blair SN. Comparisons of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as predictors of all-cause mortality in men and women. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(6):504-10. (IF=4.1)
- Artero EG, Lee DC, Ruiz JR, Sui X, Ortega FB, Church TS, Lavie CJ, Castillo MJ, Blair SN. A prospective study of muscular strength and all-cause mortality in men with hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(18):1831-7. (IF=14.2)
- Lee DC, Artero EG, Sui X, Blair SN. Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24(4 Suppl):27-35. (IF=3.8)
- Lee DC, Sui X, Church TS, Lee IM, Blair SN. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with risks of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(2):257-62. (IF=6.7)
- Lee DC, Sui X, Blair SN. Does physical activity ameliorate the health hazards of obesity? Br J Sports Med, 2009;43(1):49-51. (IF=2.5)
Phil Martin, Ph.D. - professor and chair, biomechanics
I am a specialist in exercise and locomotion biomechanics. My research activities focus primarily on the biomechanics and energetics of locomotion tasks and have often been interdisciplinary in nature.
Past locomotion research has included projects on:
- Mechanical factors influencing the economy and efficiency of walking, running, and cycling
- Decrements in the mechanics and economy of walking in the elderly
- Kinematic and kinetic determinants of walking and running patterns in below knee amputees.
I have contributed to more than 70 research articles and book chapters and have made more than 130 research presentations at national and international meetings.
Rick Sharp, Ph.D. - professor, exercise physiology
My current research interests include studies in:
- Mmetabolic adaptations of muscle in aging
- Nutritional factors affecting fluid homeostasis and exercise tolerance
I have published 65 articles in scientific journals, 5 book chapters, 28 articles in coaching and athlete magazines, and given over 100 invited presentations in the US and abroad. I am a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, a Fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, and recipient of the Iowa Board of Regents Award for Faculty Excellence.
Ann L. Smiley-Oyen, Ph.D. - graduate coordinator and associate professor, motor learning and control
My research is focused on how the brain contributes to effective movement, with the long-range goal to impact remediation, rehabilitation, and therapeutic practices.
My current focus is the contribution of the basal ganglia to learning and retention of motor skills, and to planning and online control of sequential tasks. Thus, much of my research is with people with Parkinson’s disease. We are also examining gait in people with Parkinson’s disease and older adults, and we are initiating a clinical gait assessment program. I am also doing collaborative work in which movement sequencing is being examined in children with developmental coordination disorder.
My main research focus is on understanding the control of repetitive movements in persons with Parkinson’s disease and developing rehabilitation strategies that use music to improve movement performance. Specifically, my research focuses on repetitive finger movements, speech, and gait. I am a new faculty member, and will pursue the investigation of the neural control of these movements and music using electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with other motion capture systems.
- My research focuses primarily on motivating children and adolescents to be physically active with the ultimate goal of preventing childhood obesity.
- To fulfill this objective, my research activities are centered around three main themes:
- (1) the dynamic nature of peer relationships and interactions in exercise and physical activity environments (in the classroom, in physical education, and in youth sport) that influence children’s motivation and behavior,
- (2) integrating physical activity with academic lessons in the classroom and its effects on cognitive function, motivation, and academic achievement, and
- (3) the relationship of physical activity with affect and motivation in normal-weight and overweight children and adolescents.
- My work draws primarily from Achievement Goal Theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989) and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
- My research was the first to tap the unique aspects of peer influence in achievement motivation and to assess the unique dimensions of the peer motivational climate by interviewing young athletes and developing the PeerMCYSQ, Ntoumanis & Vazou(2005)
- I recently collaborated with Iowa Department of Education and developed the “Move for Thought” kit, which integrates Physical Activities with any academic subject in the elementary school classroom.
- Current research activities: - Examining the feasibility of classroom-based physical activities and their role on children’s motivation and academic achievement. -Examining the role of structured PE on behavioral control and PA levels in preschoolers.
- I serve as a reviewer for several journals in the fields of sport and exercise psychology, physical education, and exercise science.
Gregory Welk, Ph.D. - associate professor, health promotion and exercise
My research interests focus on various aspects of physical activity epidemiology.
Accurate measures of physical activity are needed for a variety of physical activity research areas so a major focus of my work has been on developing and validating better assessments of physical activity. Emphasis in this research is on the development of effective assessment techniques to assess activity patterns in children, but applications with adults are also investigated. I have used a variety of devices and instruments including:
- Accelerometry-based activity monitors
- Heart rate monitors
- Direct observation tools (BEST)
- Various self-report measures
Increasing population levels of physical activity requires a better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and the development of effective interventions that can be disseminated. Most of my work on physical activity promotion has emphasized youth but my interests extend across the lifespan.
My work with youth is based on a social-ecological model of physical activity behavior that is specific for youth (Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model – Welk, 1999). Additional work has explored the utility of a psychological model of physical self concept in youth (Children and Youth Physical Self Perception Profile) that assesses perceptions of competence in the physical domain. Work is currently exploring parental influences on physical activity in youth and in the development and evaluation of interventions designed to promote activity in youth.